News

Monthly Archives: June 2017

Controlling your biofilm (cleaning the kitchen)

By | Diseases, Preventative | No Comments

This is the third in a series of posts about biofilms and how they relate to you.

We have learned that biofilm (plaque) builds up on your teeth, or oral appliances, and the net effect is to cause disease, either decay or gum disease. The most common way of removing biofilm in an oral health context is by regular brushing and flossing. You can equate this to the necessity to regularly clean your kitchen surfaces, shower or bath in order to maintain a healthy environment in which to live.

The more regularly this happens, the less opportunity those bacteria have to develop into those teeming cities of goo we described earlier.

Antibiotic Control of Biofilm

Although gum disease can be controlled by proper oral hygiene (toothbrushing, flossing, rinsing), gingivitis (the mildest form) is still experienced by most of the population at some point in life; a smaller proportion (30% to 40%) experience periodontitis (the severe form). Treatment of oral infections such as gum disease and decay requires removal of the biofilm and calculus (tartar) from the teeth and gums by surgical or nonsurgical procedures, sometimes followed by antibiotic therapy. This means that the biofilm needs to be regularly removed by your hygienist or dentist if you want to try to prevent the progress of the disease process. Unfortunately, these infections are not completely responsive to antibiotics. For this reason, oral infections are chronic diseases that require ongoing treatment and daily care by proper oral hygiene measures. Prevention is certainly the best strategy.

Chemical Control of Biofilm

When good oral hygiene practices fail to prevent the development of biofilms, toothpastes and mouthwashes with chemotherapeutic agents can be used. These agents can kill microorganisms in the biofilm. Chlorhexidine, triclosan, and essential oils and minerals–agents proven to kill the harmful bacteria–can reduce the degree of plaque and gingivitis, while not allowing disease-causing microorganisms to colonize.

How do biofilms form?

By | Diseases, Preventative | No Comments

This is part 2 in a series of posts about Biofilms.

Where Biofilms Form

Biofilms happily colonize many household surfaces in the bath and kitchen, including toilets, sinks, countertops, and cutting boards. Poor disinfection practices and ineffective cleaning products may increase the incidence of illnesses associated with pathogenic organisms encountered during normal household activity.

Basically, they can form on any damp surface which has not been properly cleaned. From an oral health point of view, they form on the tooth surface, both root and crown.

How Biofilms Form

  • Free-swimming bacterial cells land on a surface, arrange themselves in clusters, and attach.
  • The cells begin producing a gooey matrix.
  • The cells signal one another to multiply and form a microcolony.
  • The microcolony promotes the coexistence of diverse bacterial species and metabolic states.
  • Some cells return to their freeliving form and escape, perhaps to form new biofilms.

In this way, biofilms can spread over large areas of surface if given enough time. In an oral health setting, it is possible to detect biofilm (plaque) formation just 20 minutes after you have cleaned your teeth.

Next time, we will write about the effects of uncontrolled biofilm and how to control it.